One of the most common federal labor laws that employers struggle to comply with is the Family Medical Leave Act (FLMA). The following article outlines some of the most common questions that employers have, regarding FMLA.
Common FMLA Questions
- What is FMLA
- Do all employers need to provide FMLA coverage?
- When is an employee eligible for FMLA leave?
- Do employees get paid during FMLA leave?
- What are some of the common reasons why employees take FMLA leave?
- How far in advance do employees need to provide notice to their employer before taking FMLA leave?
- What proof does an employee need to provide to their employer in order to take FMLA leave?
- Do employees need to take FMLA leave all at once or can time-off be split up?
- Can employers change an employee’s job/position when they are on FMLA leave?
- Do employees need to provide proof that they are healthy before returning to work after FMLA leave has ended?
What is FMLA?
The Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is a federal labor law that requires covered employers to allow eligible employees job-protected leave for qualifying family and/or medical reasons. Businesses should ensure they understand the following things in order to maintain compliance with FMLA rules for employers.
Do all employers need to provide FMLA coverage?
No, only private employers with 50 or more employees and all state, local, and federal government employers are required to provide leave. Some states may also have individual laws governing medical-related leaves.
When is an employee eligible for FMLA leave?
In order to be eligible to take leave under the FMLA, an employee must:
- Work for a covered employer, and
- Work 1,250 hours during the 12 months prior to the start of the leave.
However, it is important to note that some states may have different eligibility rules.
Do employees get paid during FMLA leave?
Federal FMLA only requires unpaid leave.
However, the law permits an employee to elect, or the employer to require the employee, to use accrued paid vacation leave, paid sick or family leave for some or all of the FMLA leave period. Some states mandate paid family leave, which is why it is important to check your state of operation.
What are some of the common reasons why employees take FMLA leave?
Eligible employees may take FMLA for their own serious health condition, to care for a child or parent with a serious health condition, or for the birth or adoption of a child.
How far in advance do employees need to provide notice to their employer before taking FMLA leave?
Employees must give notice at least 30 days in advance if their need for FMLA leave is foreseeable (for example, for non-emergency surgery). Employees who need leave for an unforeseeable reason must give as much notice as is practical, usually, the same or the next business day after the employee learns of the need for leave.
What proof does an employee need to provide to their employer in order to take FMLA leave?
An employer may require that the need for leave for a serious health condition of the employee or the employee’s immediate family member be supported by a certification issued by a healthcare provider – Certification of Health Care Provider forms can be found on the U.S. Department of Labor, Wage, and Hour Division website. The employer must allow the employee at least 15 calendar days to obtain the medical certification.
Do employees need to take FMLA leave all at once or can time off be split up?
When it is medically necessary, employees may take FMLA leave intermittently, taking leave in separate blocks of time for a single qualifying reason – or on a reduced leave schedule – reducing the employee's usual weekly or daily work schedule.
Can employers change an employee’s job/position when they are on FMLA leave?
Yes, in some cases. Generally, unless an employment contract or a collective bargaining agreement states otherwise, an employer may change an employee's job duties, schedule, or work location without the employee's consent, within reason (employers must be able to show a business reason for the decision and ensure it is not retaliatory). Upon returning from FMLA leave, employees must be reinstated to their job or an equivalent one.
Do employees need to provide proof that they are healthy before returning to work after FMLA leave has ended?
As a condition of restoring an employee whose FMLA leave was due to the employee's own serious health condition that made the employee unable to perform the employee's job, an employer may have a uniformly-applied policy or practice that requires all similarly-situated employees to obtain and present certification from the employee's health care provider that the employee is able to resume work. Keep in mind that in some instances, employers may need to consider reasonable accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).